I Promised Will Reynolds This Post – I saw Will last night at Jim’s thing

Jim Johnston and Sustainable Springfield had the Smart Growth panel last night and I saw Will. A head slap moment occurred immediately, so here are the photos from the HIGH Speed Rail Corridor community input session on MAY 7!!!!! Yup 2 months late.


Sorry for the size issues but it makes the map readable


There is the whole thing. Then there were the key areas of concern. In nor particular order as they say.


This is the last today…the post is getting long and I am still learning the new Word Press system for handling pictures…


More tomorrow Will


Carbon Neutral Houses – They be real cool


Carbon neutral homes by 2016

The British government has recently opened the comment period on a major plan to revise the building code. The revisions phase in regulations ensuring that all new homes are built carbon-neutral by 2016. Other elements of the plan include:

  • Code for Sustainable Homes: national standard to inform home buyers about the environmental performance of homes offered for sale.
  • Energy Performance Certificates: national standard to inform home buyers about the energy efficiency and running costs of homes offered for sale.
  • Urban planning policy to support lower carbon emissions and resiliency in the face of climate change.
  • Water Efficiency standards
  • Review of Existing Buildings: While the new regulations cover new construction, the government looking at ways to upgrade existing homes and buildings.



DC’s First Carbon Neutral Home Hits the Market

by Mark Wellborn


Back in September, we reported that DC’s first carbon neutral home was being built in Capitol Hill. Yesterday, the much-anticipated property hit the market.

The three-bedroom, 3.5-bath home at 19 4th Street NE (map) was gutted and renovated by GreenSpur, Inc., a DC-based building and design firm that uses sustainability techniques to deliver homes that are energy efficient as well as cost effective.

After overcoming a labyrinth of regulatory hurdles and permitting nightmares given the property’s location four blocks from the Capitol, GreenSpur enlarged the home (from 1,000 to 2,100 square feet), hand dug the basement and, in keeping with their mission statement, made it completely green but priced comparably to other (non-carbon neutral) homes in the area.


Then there is this. Wiki makes a political statement.


Carbon neutrality

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

“Carbon neutral” redirects here. For other uses, see Carbon neutral (disambiguation).
Unbalanced scales.svg
The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the discussion on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until the dispute is resolved. (May 2010)

Carbon neutrality, or having a net zero carbon footprint, refers to achieving net zero carbon emissions by balancing a measured amount of carbon released with an equivalent amount sequestered or offset, or buying enough carbon credits to make up the difference. It is used in the context of carbon dioxide releasing processes, associated with transportation, energy production and industrial processes.

The carbon neutral concept may be extended to include other greenhouse gases (GHG) measured in terms of their carbon dioxide equivalence—the impact a GHG has on the atmosphere expressed in the equivalent amount of CO2. The term climate neutral is used to reflect the fact that it is not just carbon dioxide (CO2), that is driving climate change, even if it is the most abundant, but also encompasses other greenhouse gases regulated by the Kyoto Protocol, namely: methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Both terms are used interchangeably throughout this article.

Best practice for organizations and individuals seeking carbon neutral status entails reducing and/or avoiding carbon emissions first so that only unavoidable emissions are offset. The term has two common uses:

  • It can refer to the practice of balancing carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels, with renewable energy that creates a similar amount of useful energy, so that the carbon emissions are compensated, or alternatively using only renewable energies that don’t produce any carbon dioxide (this last is called a post-carbon economy).[1]
  • It is also used to describe the practice, criticized by some,[2] of carbon offsetting, by paying others to remove or sequester 100% of the carbon dioxide emitted from the atmosphere[3] – for example by planting trees – or by funding ‘carbon projects‘ that should lead to the prevention of future greenhouse gas emissions, or by buying carbon credits to remove (or ‘retire’) them through carbon trading. These practices are often used in parallel, together with energy conservation measures to minimize energy use.


Climate neutral. Who is zooming who here. Did somebody just make up a phrase to create the new denier strawman. Yah think.


Carbon Neutral Is Different Than Energy Neutral – The difference is subtle but real

Energy Neutral is different from Carbon Neutral. Energy Neutral means it produces as much energy as it consumes. Carbon Neutral takes into account all carbon used to make the place and its usage.


Lighthouse, UK’s First Zero-Emission, Carbon Neutral Home


In England, a handful of efficient demonstration homes have been built on the grounds of the Building Research Establishment Ltd, including “The Lighthouse,” which is the first net zero carbon house in the UK.  The house is also the first to attain level six in the Code for Sustainable Homes, which indicates that it is carbon neutral. The two-bedroom house is only 93.3 square meters (barely over 1000 sq. ft.) in a 2-1/2 story building.  The building has solar panels and evacuated solar tubes on its roof, as well as making use of passive measures with ventilation chimneys.  It also incorporates rainwater catchment as part of the building design.

The materials used include highly insulated, airtight building fabric which has been designed to provide generous daylight levels and includes effective solar control, together with integrated building services based around a platform of renewable and sustainable technologies. These include water efficiency techniques, renewable energy technologies, passive cooling and ventilation, as well as mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR).



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How To Build A Carbon Neutral Home

Written by Reenita Malhotra
Published on November 25th, 2008

Is it possible to build a carbon neutral home? Apparently so says the Australian Home Lifestyle TV show. Watch this segment about green building construction.

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Japan’s Carbon-Neutral Home: Leave Your Carbon Footprint At The Door

Wall Street Journal:

As leaders of the world’s most powerful nations discuss climate change at the Group of Eight summit in northern Japan, Japan’s big tech companies are displaying some of their most cutting-edge solutions in a nearby “zero emissions house.”

The single-story, 2,152-square-foot house generates all the energy required for a family of four, therefore eliminating carbon-dioxide emissions, according to the Japanese government. Products inside, many already on sale in Japan, include a washer that requires no water and an air conditioner that senses where people are in a room and automatically sends cool air in their direction rather than cooling empty space. Yet the eco-friendly products also carry a steeper price tag than traditional appliances.

The house uses a wind-turbine generator and a photovoltaic generation system, which directly converts light into electricity, to produce about 15 kilowatts of energy a day, nearly five times the amount used by a regular household. The government has presented the house as one of its contributions toward helping the world cut greenhouse emissions in half by 2050.

Read the whole story: Wall Street Journal

As leaders of the world’s most powerful nations discuss climate change at the Group of Eight summit in northern Japan, Japan’s big tech companies are displaying some of their most cutting-edge solutio…
As leaders of the world’s most powerful nations discuss climate change at the Group of Eight summit in northern Japan, Japan’s big tech companies are displaying some of their most cutting-edge solutio…

Filed by Dave BurdickReport Corrections

More in Green…


More tomorrow.


More On Energy Neutral Homes – Which is not the same as Carbon Neutral

Trying to keep my mind off the Gulf….lalalalalalala


Green Tech

The Energy-Neutral Home

Kerry A. Dolan, 11.06.09, 03:30 PM EST

Turning a historic house into an energy sipper.


BURLINGAME, Calif. — You might think that a home using zero net energy would be chilly inside. I visited one last night, and it wasn’t. It was a pleasant 72 degrees.

The Palo Alto, Calif., home owned by Marc Porat, an IT-turned-clean-tech entrepreneur, is a showcase of the latest technologies that can be used to ratchet down the amount of energy that homes consume. Porat, who has founded three companies that are developing better, greener building materials–including window and drywall maker Serious Materials–wanted to walk the talk with his own home, a historic 1936 home designed by architect Pedro de Lemos.

A net zero energy house produces as much energy as it consumes over the course of a year. Porat turned to San Francisco home energy retrofitter Sustainable Spaces (which will rename itself Recurve next week) to do the job, which took about two years. Sustainable Spaces’ Adam Winter says that by putting in dense-pack cellulose wall insulation (made from ground up newspapers), changing the heating and air conditioning system to an air-to-water heat pump, improving the ventilation and lighting systems and adding windows that insulate better, his team was able to reduce the amount of energy the home uses by 62%.




Dutch Energy Neutral Homes

In the Netherlands, the Dutch have designed new energy neutral homes that actually give back more power to the grid than they consume. This is all being done to reduce man’s impact of climate change on the Earth. In my opinion, more ecological home’s should be built anyway to reduce the harmful effects of pollution from dirty energy sources including coal. Home’s like this one are just the start of a new “green revolution” as the planet realizes that it can no longer take more than it gives back.

All over the world including the UK, the US, even China are starting to see the benefits of going green. Once our grid is capable of supporting more energy neutral or energy returning homes, our generation can only begin to transform. Green technologies and green industries are the economic future of this planet as well. Having less pollution in our atmosphere will almost certainly reduce many types of cancers and other ailments that currently plague the world.

Wouldn’t you like to live in an energy neutral home? I say…sign me up!


More on Monday


Energy Neutral Homes Continues – The Building Council’s site

Not much to say…great site …great articles…please see:


Get Optimal Performance from a Tankless Water Heater

September 4, 2009 By Willem Maas

Tankless water heaters have caught the eye of many homeowners lately—as a way to reduce the 19 percent of total home energy use consumed by water heating. According to research sponsored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), heating water with a tankless system is 12 to 34 percent more energy efficient than using a conventional storage tank system. And when tankless systems are installed at each water outlet, gains in efficiency can range from 28 to 50 percent.

Others are impressed by the ability of tankless systems to deliver hot water “endlessly” in a busy household, as well as the space saved because a storage tank is no longer needed.

These factors, combined with rising energy bills, a federal tax credit for 30 percent of the total cost (up to $1,500, including installation), and greater availability, make tankless a technology well worth considering.


More tomorrow


Up Date On The Oil Gusher In The Gulf – Continue with carbon neutral houses tomorrow

When news comes in from LEAN I try to give it some play.

Louisiana Environmental Action Network
Lower Mississippi RIVERKEEPER©

Helping to Make Louisiana Safe for Future Generations

June 22, 2010
Don’t Miss Out:
Videos of LEAN and LMRK In Action!
Check out our Executive Director, Marylee Orr, talking about protecting oil spill worker health on Countdown with Keith Olberman.

Marylee Orr, Executive Director of LEAN speaks with MSNBC’s Keith Olbermann of the health issues workers are encountering duing the cleanup efforts in the gulf
Marylee Orr on Countdown With Keith  Olberman

And don’t miss BP Oil Hits Barataria Oyster Fishing Grounds by Atchafalaya Basinkeeper, Dean Wilson and Media Guru, Jeffrey Dubinsky.

Rosie Philippie, of the near extinct Atakapa-Ishak tribe is interviewed by Atchafalaya Basinkeeper, Dean Wilson. The 10 or so families make their living on the oyster grounds in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. These ground have now been inundated with oil from the BP oil disaster.
BP Oil Hits Barataria Oyser Fishing  Grounds
click on the images to go to the videos

SaveOurGulf.orgVisit SaveOurGulf.org to get more information about the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster from Waterkeeper organizations across the Gulf Coast and donate to Save Our Gulf!


More Tomorrow


Living In A Cave Or The Next Best Thing – They have nearly zero energy use

People all over the world live in caves. I am not talking about subsistence living either. Downtown Minneapolis is pretty much underground or connected by underground walkways.


Montreal’s Underground City (officially RÉSO or La Ville Souterraine in French) is the set of interconnected complexes (both above and below ground) in and around Downtown Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It is also known as the indoor city (ville intérieure), and is the largest underground complex in the world.[1]

The lower floors of the Eaton Centre between the McGill and Peel metro stations.

Not all portions of the indoor city (ville intérieure) are underground. The connections are considered tunnels architecturally and technically, but have conditioned air and good lighting as any building’s liveable space does. Many tunnels are large enough to have shops on both sides of the passage. With over 32 km (20 mi) of tunnels spread over more than 12 km2 (4.6 sq mi), connected areas include shopping malls, apartment buildings, hotels, condominiums, banks, offices, museums, universities, seven metro stations, two commuter train stations, a regional bus terminal and the Bell Centre amphitheatre and arena.[citation needed] There are more than 120 exterior access points to the underground city. Each access point is an entry point to one of 60 residential or commercial complexes comprising 3.6 km2 (1.4 sq mi) of floor space, including 80% of all office space and 35% of all commercial space in downtown Montreal.[citation needed] In winter, some 500,000 people use the underground city every day. Because of its Underground City, Montreal is often referred to [by whom?] as the “Double-Decker City” or “Two Cities in One”.


OK so it is really really cold in Montreal. The point is caves do not really need heating and cooling. Hot water can be supplied by solar or geothermal and that just leaves your electrical needs. They also do it where it is really really hot.


Coober Pedy is a very small town, roughly halfway between Adelaide and Alice Springs, that has become a popular stopover point and tourist destination, especially since the completion of the sealing of the Stuart Highway in 1987.

Interesting attractions in Coober Pedy include the mines, the graveyard, and the underground churches. The first tree ever seen in the town was welded together from scrap iron. It still sits on a hilltop overlooking the town. The local golf course – mostly played at night with glowing balls, to avoid daytime temperatures – is completely free of grass, and golfers take a small piece of “turf” around to use for teeing off. As a result of correspondence between the two clubs, the Coober Pedy golf club is the only club in the world to enjoy reciprocal rights at The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews.[4]



Coober Pedy Underground Homes
Think A Dugout Is A Hole In The Ground? Think Again!

Coober Pedy underground homes are not what you expect.

The idea of living underground usually triggers thoughts of dark, damp and cramped spaces.

It doesn’t help that those underground homes are called “dugouts” in Coober Pedy… Or that people are told that they are abandoned mine shafts…

But as I said, Coober Pedy dugouts are not what you think.

You really have to go and have a look at some of those homes yourself, or stay in underground accommodation in Coober Pedy. You’ll probably end up dreaming of an underground home yourself. I certainly did.

Historic Coober Pedy Dugouts | Modern Coober Pedy Underground Homes

Historic Coober Pedy Dugouts

Coober Pedy Dugout

The early Coober Pedy dugouts were indeed the holes that had been dug in search for opal.

Back then opal mining was back breaking manual labour, so the earliest Coober Pedy homes were no bigger than they absolutely needed to be.


Tomorrow more on Energy Neutral Houses.


Unfortunately These Are PreFab Houses – They are not allowed everywhere

Still they are pretty cool…

The European Solar Decathlon Kicks Off Today – Exclusive Photos!

by Bridgette Meinhold, 06/18/10


Ready for another exciting competition in the world of prefab solar houses? Today the 2010 Solar Decathlon Europe kicked off in Madrid, Spain, marking the first time the competition has been hosted in Europe! Seventeen teams from around the globe are battling it out in the center of the city to see who has the most efficient solar powered and eco-friendly house. Just like the competition in Washington DC, the teams will be graded on their ability to minimize their energy use, innovative architecture and engineering, sustainability, and more. Read on for our exclusive photos and a first look at the most exciting houses in this year’s competition!

Above, the Fablab House from the Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia is on their home turf for this competition and one of it’s most striking differences from the other houses is its departure from rectangular home. Solar panels completely cover the curvaceous roof and is built off the ground for a boost of natural ventilation

Read more: The European Solar Decathlon Kicks Off Today – Exclusive Photos! | Inhabitat – Green Design Will Save the World


Please see this amazing article and its great pictures. The American entry is from last year, but it is still awesome. 2 things to note. This not being critical either. 1, building codes in many areas prohibit the construction of prefab homes. The reasons range from protecting unions, to cutting competition against builders,  to bad experiences with crappy kits. 2, they are small compared to some standards. This is in part because they encourage people to live outside which is good for your health as well as encouraging socializing. But it is also the case that many people have gotten used way too much space for way to much STUFF. We are consuming the planet and we must stop.


Every Discussion Starts The Same Way – The Sun is the biggest object in the solar system

Jam Band Friday – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KIYiGA_rIls

You would think that we would take advantage of that.


The Sun



The New Solar System
Summarizes what we’ve learned from interplanetary explorations in the last 25 years. My primary reference for The Nine Planets.

The Compact NASA Atlas of the Solar System
This ‘road map’ of the solar system is the definitive guide for planetary science.

Our Sun is a normal main-sequence G2 star, one of more than 100 billion stars in our galaxy.

        diameter:    1,390,000 km.
        mass:        1.989e30 kg
        temperature: 5800 K (surface)
                     15,600,000 K (core)

The Sun is by far the largest object in the solar system. It contains more than 99.8% of the total mass of the Solar System (Jupiter contains most of the rest).

It is often said that the Sun is an “ordinary” star. That’s true in the sense that there are many others similar to it. But there are many more smaller stars than larger ones; the Sun is in the top 10% by mass. The median size of stars in our galaxy is probably less than half the mass of the Sun.

The Sun is personified in many mythologies: the Greeks called it Helios and the Romans called it Sol.

The Sun is, at present, about 70% hydrogen and 28% helium by mass everything else (“metals“) amounts to less than 2%. This changes slowly over time as the Sun converts hydrogen to helium in its core.

The outer layers of the Sun exhibit differential rotation: at the equator the surface rotates once every 25.4 days; near the poles it’s as much as 36 days. This odd behavior is due to the fact that the Sun is not a solid body like the Earth. Similar effects are seen in the gas planets. The differential rotation extends considerably down into the interior of the Sun but the core of the Sun rotates as a solid body.

Conditions at the Sun’s core (approximately the inner 25% of its radius) are extreme. The temperature is 15.6 million Kelvin and the pressure is 250 billion atmospheres. At the center of the core the Sun’s density is more than 150 times that of water.




In fact hard as it is to believe…Jupiter and the Sun constitute 95% of the matter in the solar system..We be pretty small.


The Sun is the most prominent feature in our solar system. It is the largest object and contains approximately 98% of the total solar system mass. One hundred and nine Earths would be required to fit across the Sun’s disk, and its interior could hold over 1.3 million Earths. The Sun’s outer visible layer is called the photosphere and has a temperature of 6,000°C (11,000°F). This layer has a mottled appearance due to the turbulent eruptions of energy at the surface.

Solar energy is created deep within the core of the Sun. It is here that the temperature (15,000,000° C; 27,000,000° F) and pressure (340 billion times Earth’s air pressure at sea level) is so intense that nuclear reactions take place. This reaction causes four protons or hydrogen nuclei to fuse together to form one alpha particle or helium nucleus. The alpha particle is about .7 percent less massive than the four protons. The difference in mass is expelled as energy and is carried to the surface of the Sun, through a process known as convection, where it is released as light and heat. Energy generated in the Sun’s core takes a million years to reach its surface. Every second 700 million tons of hydrogen are converted into helium ashes. In the process 5 million tons of pure energy is released; therefore, as time goes on the Sun is becoming lighter.

Sun  Diagram

The chromosphere is above the photosphere. Solar energy passes through this region on its way out from the center of the Sun. Faculae and flares arise in the chromosphere. Faculae are bright luminous hydrogen clouds which form above regions where sunspots are about to form. Flares are bright filaments of hot gas emerging from sunspot regions. Sunspots are dark depressions on the photosphere with a typical temperature of 4,000°C (7,000°F).

The corona is the outer part of the Sun’s atmosphere. It is in this region that prominences appears. Prominences are immense clouds of glowing gas that erupt from the upper chromosphere. The outer region of the corona stretches far into space and consists of particles traveling slowly away from the Sun. The corona can only be seen during total solar eclipses.

The Sun appears to have been active for 4.6 billion years and has enough fuel to go on for another five billion years or so. At the end of its life, the Sun will start to fuse helium into heavier elements and begin to swell up, ultimately growing so large that it will swallow the Earth. After a billion years as a red giant, it will suddenly collapse into a white dwarf — the final end product of a star like ours. It may take a trillion years to cool off completely




According to the world’s leading experts, also known as Rocket Scientists.


Electromagnetic radiation

Electromagnetic radiation consists of electrical and magnetic energy. The radiation can be thought of as waves of energy or as particle-like “packets” of energy called photons.

Visible light, infrared rays, and other forms of electromagnetic radiation differ in their energy. Six bands of energy span the entire spectrum (range) of electromagnetic energy. From the least energetic to the most energetic, they are: radio waves, infrared rays, visible light, ultraviolet rays, X rays, and gamma rays. Microwaves, which are high-energy radio waves, are sometimes considered to be a separate band. The sun emits radiation of each type in the spectrum.

The amount of energy in electromagnetic waves is directly related to their wavelength, the distance between successive wave crests. The more energetic the radiation, the shorter the wavelength. For example, gamma rays have shorter wavelengths than radio waves. The energy in an individual photon is related to the position of the photon in the spectrum. For instance, a gamma ray photon has more energy than a photon of radio energy.

All forms of electromagnetic radiation travel through space at the same speed, commonly known as the speed of light: 186,282 miles (299,792 kilometers) per second. At this rate, a photon emitted by the sun takes only about 8 minutes to reach Earth.

The amount of electromagnetic radiation from the sun that reaches the top of Earth’s atmosphere is known as the solar constant. This amount is about 1,370 watts per square meter. But only about 40 percent of the energy in this radiation reaches Earth’s surface. The atmosphere blocks some of the visible and infrared radiation, almost all the ultraviolet rays, and all the X rays and gamma rays. But nearly all the radio energy reaches Earth’s surface.

Particle radiation

Protons and electrons flow continually outward from the sun in all directions as the solar wind. These particles come close to Earth, but Earth’s magnetic field prevents them from reaching the surface.

However, more intense concentrations of particles from flares and coronal mass ejections on the sun reach Earth’s atmosphere. These particles are known as solar cosmic rays. Most of them are protons, but they also include heavier nuclei as well as electrons. They are extremely energetic. As a result, they can be hazardous to astronauts in orbit or to orbiting satellites.

The cosmic rays cannot reach Earth’s surface. When they collide with atoms at the top of the atmosphere, they change into a shower of less energetic particles. But, because the solar events are so energetic, they can create geomagnetic storms, major disturbances in Earth’s magnetic field. The storms, in turn, can disrupt electrical equipment on Earth’s surface. For example, they can overload power lines, leading to blackouts.


Monday – Let’s all live in caves.

You knew I’d have to play it, right?



Meditations On All Things Solar – Let us start with the big guy himself

That is right the Sun creates all the energy on the Earth. Well, the Sun or its cousins because the heavy metals that we use for our version of “nuclear power” were created in Suns of the past that blew up. The oil, natural gas and the coal we burn are nothing but dead congealed plants and animals nurtured by the sun. Really think about it what is “natural gas”. The stink of the dead from the past. So why do we do that? We can get all the energy we need directly from the Sun? The point is that if the capitalist system can sell you bottled water then it surely can sell you petroleum products.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

This article is about the star. For other uses, see Sun (disambiguation).
This article is  semi-protected.
The Sun Sun symbol.svg
The Sun seen through X-ray
Observation data
Mean distance
from Earth
1.496×108 km
8 min 19 s at light speed
Visual brightness (V) ?26.74 [1]
Absolute magnitude 4.83 [1]
Spectral classification G2V
Metallicity Z = 0.0177 [2]
Angular size 31.6? – 32.7? [3]
Adjectives solar
Orbital characteristics
Mean distance
from Milky Way core
~2.5×1017 km
26,000 light-years
Galactic period (2.25–2.50) × 108 a
Velocity ~220 km/s (orbit around the center of the Galaxy)
~20 km/s (relative to average velocity of other stars in stellar neighborhood)
396.5±3.0 km/s[4] (relative to the cosmic microwave background)
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter 1.392×106 km [1]
109 × Earth
Equatorial radius 6.955×105 km [5]
109 × Earth[5]
Equatorial circumference 4.379×106 km [5]
109 × Earth[5]
Flattening 9×10?6
Surface area 6.0877×1012 km2 [5]
11,990 × Earth[5]
Volume 1.412×1018 km3 [5]
1,300,000 × Earth
Mass 1.9891×1030 kg [1]
332,900 × Earth[5]
Average density 1.408×103 kg/m3 [1][5][6]
Different Densities Core: 1.5×105 kg/m3
lower Photosphere: 2×10?4 kg/m3
lower Chromosphere: 5×10?6 kg/m3
Avg. Corona: 1×10?12 kg/m3 [7]
Equatorial surface gravity 274.0 m/s2 [1]
27.94 g
28 × Earth[5]
Escape velocity
(from the surface)
617.7 km/s [5]
55 × Earth[5]
of core
~15.7×106 K [1]
of surface (effective)
5,778 K [1]
of corona
~5×106 K
Luminosity (Lsol) 3.846×1026 W [1]
~3.75×1028 lm
~98 lm/W efficacy
Mean Intensity (Isol) 2.009×107 W·m?2·sr?1
Rotation characteristics
Obliquity 7.25° [1]
(to the ecliptic)
(to the galactic plane)
Right ascension
of North pole[8]
19h 4min 30s
of North pole
63°52′ North
Sidereal rotation period
(at equator)
25.05 days [1]
(at 16° latitude) 25.38 days [1]
25d 9h 7min 13s [8]
(at poles) 34.3 days [1]
Rotation velocity
(at equator)
7.189×103 km/h [5]
Photospheric composition (by mass)
Hydrogen 73.46%[9]
Helium 24.85%
Oxygen 0.77%
Carbon 0.29%
Iron 0.16%
Sulfur 0.12%
Neon 0.12%
Nitrogen 0.09%
Silicon 0.07%
Magnesium 0.05%
This box: view • talk • edit

The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It has a diameter of about 1,392,000 kilometers (865,000 mi), about 109 times that of Earth, and its mass (about 2 × 1030 kilograms, 330,000 times that of Earth) accounts for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System.[10] About three quarters of the Sun’s mass consists of hydrogen, while the rest is mostly helium. Less than 2% consists of heavier elements, including iron, oxygen, carbon, neon, and others.[11]

The Sun’s color is white, although from the surface of the Earth it may appear yellow because of atmospheric scattering.[12] Its stellar classification, based on spectral class, is G2V, and is informally designated a yellow star, because the majority of its radiation is in the yellow-green portion of the visible spectrum.[13] In this spectral class label, G2 indicates its surface temperature of approximately 5,778 K (5,505 °C; 9,941 °F), and V (Roman five) indicates that the Sun, like most stars, is a main sequence star, and thus generates its energy by nuclear fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium. In its core, the Sun fuses 430–600 million tons of hydrogen each second. Once regarded by astronomers as a small and relatively insignificant star, the Sun is now presumed to be brighter than about 85% of the stars in the Milky Way galaxy, most of which are red dwarfs.[14][15] The absolute magnitude of the Sun is +4.83; however, as the star closest to Earth, the Sun is the brightest object in the sky with an apparent magnitude of ?26.74.[16][17] The Sun’s hot corona continuously expands in space creating the solar wind, a hypersonic stream of charged particles that extends to the heliopause at roughly 100 astronomical units. The bubble in the interstellar medium formed by the solar wind, the heliosphere, is the largest continuous structure in the Solar System.[18][19]

The Sun is currently traveling through the Local Interstellar Cloud in the Local Bubble zone, within the inner rim of the Orion Arm of the Milky Way galaxy. Of the 50 nearest stellar systems within 17 light-years from Earth, the Sun ranks 4th in mass.[20] The Sun orbits the center of the Milky Way at a distance of approximately 24,000–26,000 light years from the galactic center, completing one clockwise orbit, as viewed from the galactic north pole, in about 225–250 million years.


The sun will come out tomorrow tomorrow tomorrow.