Here is a site with the basics.
Growing Your Own Food: Small Vegetable Garden Ideas
Growing your own food has its advantages. It’s a low-cost source of fresh vegetables, herbs, and legumes. You retain control over whether chemically-laden and potentially dangerous pesticides and fertilizers are sprayed on your food. Plus you get the satisfaction of chopping and sautéing food you personally planted and harvested with your own hands.
The sense of self-reliance that comes from growing your own food in a small vegetable garden can be exhilarating. The task appeals to primal, survivalist instincts. Furthermore, many nature lovers regard organic home vegetable gardening as good for sustaining the environment.
Go there and read. More tomorrow.